Wednesday, October 27, 2010

სოციალური 1–ლი თავი

Tavi 6

socialuri fsiqologiis sagani da amocanebi

socialuri fsiqologiis mravali gansazRvreba arse­bobs, magram am simravleSi SeiniSneba erTi zogadi azri, romelic maT aerTianebs, rom socialuri fsiqologia swavlobs adamianis socialur bunebas, mis socialur aqtiobas. socialuri fsiqologia adamians Seiswavlis socialur situaciaSi. swored ase gansazRvra socialuri fsiqologia s. aSma - misi azriT socialuri fsiqologia Seiswavlis adamianis socialur aqtiobas.

Tu CaukvirdebiT am gansazRvrebas, da gaviTvaliswinebT imasac, rom socialuri fsiqologiis TiTqmis yvela gansazRvrebaSi analogiuri azria gatarebuli, advilia davaskvnaT, rom socialuri fsiqologia swavlobs adamia­nis bunebas.

adamianis arsi,rom mis socialurobaSi mdgomareobs cnobilia jer kidev antikurobidan. aristotelem adamia­ni gansazRvra rogorc 3sazogadoebrivi cxoveli4. aris­totelem xazi gausva im faqts, rom is vinc Tavisi bunebiT da ara rRac SemTxveviTi mdgomareobis gamo cxovrobs sazogadoebis gareT an zneobrivad ar aris adamianis donemde ganviTarebuli an zeadamiania. Tu individi Tavis­Tavs TviTkmar arsebad Tvlis, is an cxovelia an RmerTi. e.i. adamianis arsi mis socialurobaSia. adamianSi ra Tqma unda aris cxoveluric, magram mis specifikurobas soci­aluroba gansazRvravs. esaa is rasac mecniereba da saRi azric adamians uwodebs. amdenad, adamianis socialuri bunebis gageba TviT adamianis bunebis gagebas niSnavs. adamianis socialuroba ki bolosdabolos aRmoCnda, imas niSnavs, rom adamiani sxvisgan zegavlenis mimRebia.

cnobilia, rom adamians aqvs sami ram: kognicia, emocia da konacia (qceviTi tendencia). amas emyareba fsiqologi­aSi cnobili fsiqikuri procesebis klasifikacia sam jgufad (SemecnebiTi procesebi, emociebi da grZnobebi da nebelobiTi procesebi). saRi azris doneze es niSnavs, rom adamianebs garesamyarosadmi (sagnebi, movlenebi, Rirebule­bebi) aqvT SemecnebiTi, emocionaluri da qceviTi damo­kidebuleba. adamianebi imecneben samyaros, rasac imecneben is adamianebSi iwvevs grZnobebs da Sesabamisad axorcie­leben qcevebs. aRmoCnda, rom samive am sferoze gavlenas axdens socialuri situacia, rom individi calke da individi sxvebTan erTad gansxvavebulad aRiqvams da gansxvavebulad ganicdis gare samyaros, gansxvavebulia maTi qcevebic. individis situaciaSi sxvisi arseboba cvlis samive am sferos (kognicias, emocias da konacias). e.i. individze gavlenas axdens is socialuri situacia romelSic is imyofeba. amaSi mdgomareobs misi socialu­roba. socialuri fsiqologia adamians swored am kuTxiT Seiswavlis. socialuri fsiqologiis mizania socialuri gavlenebis kanonzomierebebis Seswavla. es zogadi azri farTodaa asaxuli d. kartraitis mier mocemul defi­niciaSi, rom socialuri fsiqologia warmoadgens soci­alur mecnierebaTa dargs, romelic cdilobs axsnas Tu sazogadoeba rogor axdens gavlenas individas kogniciaze, motivaciaze, ganviTarebaze da qcevaze, da Tavis mxriv sazogadoeba rogor ganicdis individis zegavlenas4 (Darwin Cartwright, 19 ).

vfiqrobT am gansazRvrebaSi kargadaa ganzogadoebuli is ZiriTadi idea, romelic fsiqologiis gansxvavebuli skolis warmomadgenlebis mier socialuri fsiqologiis gansazRvrebebSia gatarebuli. SesaZloa, aman ganapiroba is, rom kartraitis mier mocemuli socialuri fsiqologi­is gansazRvreba misaRebi gxda aramarto fsiqologe­bisaTvis

miuxedavad amisa, rogorc aRvniSneT, arsebobs socialuri fsiqologiis gansxvavebuli gansazRvrebebi sadac zogadi idea adamianis socialuri bunebis Sesaxeb SenarCunebulia, magram xazgasma gansxvavebul komponenteb­ze keTdeba. kartraitis mier mocemul gansazRvrebaSi xazi aqvs gasmuli imas rom: (1) socialuri fsiqologia swav­lobs adamianis qcevas; (2) sazogadoeba gavlenas axdens adamianis qcevaze; (3) gavlena sazogadoebasa da individs Soris aris urTierT (reciprikuli); da (4) socialuri fsiqologiis sakvlevi ar aris mxolod da mxolod qceva. mis interesebSi Sedis agreTve motivebi da kognicia.

TiTqmis analogiuria r. beronis da d. birnis mier mocemuli definicia - 3socialuri fsiqologia aris mecni­eruli sfero, romelic cdilobs gaigos individis qcevisa da azrovnebis buneba da mizezebi socialur situaciaSi4 (Robert A. Baron & Doon Byrne, 2000 gv. 6).

d. maiersma socialuri fsiqologia gansazRvra rogorc 3mecniereba, romelic Seiswavlis rogor fiqroben adamia­nebi erTmaneTze, rogor axdenen gavlenas erTmaneTze da rogor mimarTebaSi arian erTmaneTTan4? (L\ Vfqthc= 1999)\ Sesabamisad maiersi xazs usvams situaciis mniSvnelobas - rom adamianebi TavianTi kulturis gavlenas ganicdian, pirovnebis mniSvnelobas - rom adamiani TviTon qmnis Tavis socialur samyaros, da kognaciis mniSvnelobas - rom adamia­nebi nawilobriv gansxvavebulad iqcevian imitom rom gansxvavebulad fiqroben. rom socialuri realoba xSirad subieqturiad konstruirebuli realobaa, raSic mniSvne­loba eZleva imas Tu ras vfiqrobT Cvens Tavze, ramdenad optimistebi an pesimistebi varT da a.S, da socialur fsiqo­logiuri principebis gamoyenebis mniSvnelobas.

aRmoCnda, rom sxva adamianebi da saerTod socialuri situacia, individze maSinac axdens gavlenas, roca isini individis uSualo situaciaSi ar arian. ufro meti, individze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos jer ar arsebulma sxvam. mag. individze, mis qcevaze gavlenas axdens Svili romelic fiqrobs rom momavalSi eyoleba. an kidev, individze SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos wakiTxuli romanis gmirma romelTanac is identifikacias axdens da amiT TavisTavis gaigivebs axdens am gmiris fiqciur xasiaTTan. dabolos, is vinc individze gavlenas axdens SesaZloa sulac irealuri arseba iyos. mag. Tu individma iwama RmerTis arseboba, imqveyniuri samoTxis da jojoxeTis realoba, yovelive es sakmaod Zlier gavlenas moaxdens mis awmyo qcevaze. gaiTvaliswina ra gavlenis es aspeqtebi g. olportma SemogvTavaza socialuri fsiqo­logi­is Semdegi definicia: “mcire gamonaklisis garda socialuri fsiqologebi Tavis sagans ganixilaven rogorc imis gagebis da axsnis cdas, Tu rogor axdens sxva adamianis aqtualuri, warmosaxuli da nagulisxmevi arseboba individis azrovnebaze, grZnobebze da qcevaze gavlenas” (G. Allport, 199). definiciaSi 3nagulisxmevi arse­bo­ba4 exeba aqtivobas, romelsac individi axorcielebs rTul socialur struqturaSi misi poziciis (rolis) da misi jgufis wevrobis gamo.

amrigad, socialuri fsiqologia swavlobs socialuri gavlenebis kanonzomierebebs, cdilobs gaigos socialuri qcevis mizezebi. socialuri fsiqologia miznad isaxavs gaigos pirobebis is farTe rangi, romlebic ayalibeben individis socialur qcevas, maT aqtivobas, grZnobebs da azrovnebas socialuri situaciebis, sxva individebis mimarT. amrigad, socialuri fsiqologiis miznebi ar Semo­ifar­gleba mxolod Teoriuli interesebiT. navaraudevia, rom im pirobebis mecnieruli gageba, romlebic ayalibeben individis qcevebs mogvcems rogorc socialuri qcevis winaswarmetyvelebis ise misi sasurveli mimarTulebiT Secvlis SesaZleblobas. amdenad, mas eqneba rogorc mecni­eruli ise praqtikuli mniSvneloba.

maS, socialuri fsiqologia cdilobs gaigos socialu­ri qcevis mizezebi. swavlobs socialur Ósituaciebs, romlebic gavlenas axdenen adamianebze. amasTan, individis qcevaze gavlenas axdens agreTve arasocialuri faqto­rebic, romlebic TviT individis Sinagani bunebidan gamom­dinareoben. amitom Zalian Znelia yvela im faqtoris CamoTvla, romlebic qcevaze axdenen gavlenas. erTi sityviT socialuri qcevis CamoyalibebaSi uamravi cvladi iRebs monawileobas. Sesabamisad nacadia am qcevebis klasi­fika­cia da ZiriTadad gamoyofen qcevebis Semdeg jgufebs:

(1) sxvisi qceva da maxasiaTeblebi (ras amboben da akeTeben isini; maTi garegnoba, rasiuli an eTnikuri foni da a.S.).

(2) socialuri kognicia (Cveni azrebi, rwmenebi, mexsierebis foni, atributebi).

(3) garemoseuli pirobebi (sicxe, xmauri, WuWyi, adamianebis siWarbe, amindi).

(4) socio-kulturuli faqtorebi (jgufis wevroba, kultu­ru­li normebi da Rirebulebebi).

(5) biologiuri faqtorebi (garegnuloba, sensoruli da kognituri unarebis Tandayolili aspeqtebi).

esenia ase vTqvaT faqtorTa jgufebi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen Cvens qcevebze (grZnobebze, aqtiobebze da azrebze).

rogorc miuTiTeT, interesi am sakiTxebisadmi momdi­nareobs samarTliani daSvebidan, rom am pirobebis codna saSualebas mogvcems ara marto viwinaswarmetyveloT soci­aluri qceva, aramed mivceT mas sasurveli mimar­Tuleba, erTi sityviT SevcvaloT is. esaa is, rac moeT­xoveba nebismier mecnierebas.

rogorc vxedavT, socialuri fsiqologiis interesebis sfero sakmaod mimzidvelia Teoriulad da amave dros praqtikuladac, magram Tu ramdenad warmatebiT akeTebs is Tavis saqmes damokidebulia imaze Tu ramdenad zustia Ta­vis saqmianobaSi. amas ki misi meTodebi da meTodologia gansazRvravs.

20-27 ar gvaqvs da arc gveqnebaJ Teoriebis mokle mimoxilva es qvarcxavaSi araa da ase rom, Tavi ar SeiwuxoTJ

Ggv.28_____gv39. eka

Evoluciuri socialuri fsiqologia

evoluciuri socialuri fsiqologia warmoadgens mimarTulebas, romelic iyenebs evoluciuri da bunebrivi SerCevis principebs adamianis qcevisa da socialuri cxovrebis gasagebad. Eevoluciuri socialuri fsiqologia irCevs TavisTvis ideas romelic wamoayena Carlz darvinma da SemdegSi ukve daamuSaves biologebma mwerebis, frinvelebis da sxva cxovelebis socialuri qcevis asaxsnel;ad. Aamave dros kulturuli midgoma aniWebs gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas adamianis mravalferovan qcevas , romelic dakvirvebadia mTel msoflioSi . evoluciuri midgomebi TavianTi yuradRebis aqcentirebas axdenen saerTo kacobriobriv memkvidreobebze.

Soreul warsulSi zogierTi qceviTi tendenciebi, iseTi rogoricaa gaeqce gvelTan Sexvedras an frinvelebis siyvaruli, mdidari proteiniTa da Saqris saSualebiT zrdida Cveni winaprebis gadarCenis Sanss. individebi , romlebic avlendnen am tendenciebs , yavdaT meti Svili, romlebis cocxlobdnen da agrZelebdnen Sobadobas. Aanu mravldebodnen. A am gziT amgvari qcevis nimuSebi SemdegSi ukve gaxda adamianis genetikuri memkvidreoba. Eevoluciuli socialuri fsiqologiis azriT amdagvari evoluciuri principebi xsnian aseve bevri tipis socialuri qcevis movlenebs iseTebs rogoricaa magaliTad is rom patara adamianebs(bavSvebs) aqvT Zlieri emociuri kavSiri TavianT mSoblebTan es aseve Cans saqmros arCevis dros ,Cveni mzadyofna davexmaroT adamianebs, romelTac WirdebaT Cveni daxmareba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT Tu davakvirdebiT Cvens qceviT tendenciebs mivxvdebiT rom es aris bunebrivi SerCevis saboloo produqti , romelic moqmedebs adamianTa modgmis CarCoebSi.

evoluciur socialur fsiqologias gamoaqvs rigi ZiriTadi mdgomareobebisa :

1. Bbevri qceviTi tendencia da adamianis mier arCevanis gakeTeba-------es aris bunebrivi SerCevis Sedegi. isini cnobilia rogorc fsiqologiuri evolucionirebis meqanizmi. Eeseni SeiZleba ganxiluli iyos rogorc garkveul problemebze adaptirebuli reaqcia., romlebTanac uwevdaT Sejaxeba Cvens winaprebs. rogorc gvelis SiSis problema SeiZleboda gadaeWriliyo saSiSroebisgan gaqceviT, romelic arsebobda garemoSi.

2. adamianis yvela qcevas gansazRvravs moqmedi Sinagani fsiqologiuri damokidebulebebi (fsiqologiuri evolucionirebis meqanizmis CaTvliT) da Sinagani situaciuri moTxovnilebebi. adamianebi-----biologiuri organizmebi romlebic moqmedeben gansazRvrul socialur konteqstSi; udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc biologiur ise socialur gavlenasa da qcevas.

3. zogierTi gansakuTrebuli problema romelsac ejaxebodnen Cveni winaprebi,iyo Tavisi arsiT socialuri. adamianebi ibadebian da cxovrebas atareben socialur jgufebSi. Sesabamisad bevri meqanizmi fsiqologiuri evolucionirebisa unda iWerdes damokidebulebas sxva adamianebTan. SiSi, iyo gandevnili sakuTari jgufidan,SesaZlebloba TanamSromlobde sxva adamianebTan da iyo mzad Cado resursebi Sens bavSvSi.

ra SeZileba iTqvas evoluciuri mimarTulebis mxridan LLarris SemTxvevaze,Rvinis maRaziis gaqurdvisas policielze srolaze?evolucionuri socialuri fsiqologia yuradRebas gaamaxvilebda imaze rom agresia warmoadgens zogad reaqcias adamianisas muqaraze da savaraudod warmoadgens models romelic miCneuli iyo 1000 wlis win . maT SeuZliaT SeamCnion rom mTels msoflioSi daiwyo ufro kacebis mier agresii gamovlineba vidre qalebis,amitomac ar aris gasakviri amaSi rom damnaSave ---- warmoadgens kacs. voluciuri Teoriis momxreebs aseve SeuZliaT daamaton rom miuxedavad arsebuli sayovelTao reagirebis tendeciebisa agresiul muqaraze, aucilebeli moqmedebis mosayvanad, SeiZleba sxva da sxva individma damoukideblad piradi gamocdilebis an kulturuli Rirebulebebis Sesabamisad moaxdinos reagireba.

bunebrivi SerCevis evoluciuri Teoria moicavs farTo problemaTa rgols; zogierT momentSi SeiZleba SevadaroT sayovelTao fsiqoanalizis TeoriebTan, biheviorizmTan da geStaltfsiqologiasTan. socialuri fsiqologiis CarCoebSi mkvlevarebi rogorc wesi ikvleven metad konkretul Teoriebs, romlebic ver Tanxmdebodnen Tavis droze am saerTo evoluciur swavlebaze. magaliTad, urTierT altruizmis Teorias miaCnda rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Cven vavlenT udides mzadyofnas davexmaroT naTesavebs, da ara ucnob adamianebs. seqsualuri SerCevis Tanaxmad kaci da qali arCevanis dros partniors miaweren sxva da sxva Tvisebes. Cven davubrundebiT amda sxva evuluciuri socialuri fsiqologiis ideas bolo TavebSi am wignis.

Tanamedrove socialur – fsigologiuri Teoriebi

Tanamedrove socialuri Teoria xSirad aRniSnavs rom maT mier Seswavlili sakiTxebi SeuZlebelia bolomde gaigo raime erTi zogadi TeoriiT, magaliTad socialuri Teoriis swavlebiT. ufro metic kombinireba da ideaTa gaerTianeba sxva da sxva Teoriuli swavlebidan aris sasargeblo. imis magivrad rom Cveni yuradRebis koncetrireba movaxdinoT Sinagan qcevebze, azrovnebaze an emociaze, Tanamedrove Teoriebi iRvwian gaigon urTierT kavSiri qcevas, azrebsa da grZnobebs Soris . magaliTad Teoritikosebi socialuri mecnierebisa valdebulni arian aRiaron subieqturi molodinebis mniSvneloba adamianis qcevis gasagebad. roca Tqven waikiTxavT socialur fsiqologiis swavlebisas agresiaze an konformulobaze, yuradReba miaqcieT imas rom Tanamedrove socialur fsiqologiur analizSi keTdeba mcdelobebi daiWiro yvela adamianuri gamocdilebis aspeqti, qceva, Secnoba da motivacia.

socialur fsiqologiuri sxva mimarTulebis moqmedebas warmoadgens Teoriis damuSaveba, sadac SeiZleba miRebul iqnas gansazRvruli organizaciuli jgufis fenomeni, iseTi rogoricaa daxmarebis gaweva ucnobi adamianisTvis, romelic moxvda gasaWirSi, aseve pozitiuri StabeWdilebebis Camoyalibeba sxva adamianze, an damorCieleba vinme avtoritetze. am Teoriebma miiRes saxelwodeba saSualo donis Teoriisa. imitom rom maT aqvT yuradReba mobilizebuli gansazRvrul aspeqtebze socialur qcevisa da ar cdiloben socialuri cxovrebis aTvisebas mTlianobaSi. saSualo donis Teoriis magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT hipoTeza agresiis frustrirebuli determinaciis. am wignSi Cven SegviZlia gavecnoT bevr amdagvar viwro specirizirebul Teoriebs. aseve Tqven SeZlebT SeamCnioT rom es specifiuri Teoriebi da modelebi inarCuneben ZiriTadi Teoriuli mimarTulebebis gavlenebs.

Kkvlevis meTodebi socialur fsiqologiaSi

socialuri fsiqologiis SesaniSnav niSans warmoadgens is , rom misi kvlevis meTodebis Temebi kavSirSia Cvens yoveldRiur gamocdilebasTan. socialuri fsiqologia Seiswavlis siyvaruls da altruizms, konfliqtebsa da crurwmenebs. socialur fsiqologiur kvlevebs biZgi misca SeerTebul StatebSi gamovlenilma diskriminaciebma afrikelbis, ebraelebisa da sxva eTnikuri umciresobis mimarT. socialuri fsiqologia empiriuli mecnierebaa, rac imas niSnavs rom fsiqologia ikvlevs , swavlobs sistemur meTodebs informaciis SerCevisTvis , socialuri cxovrebisa da aseve sakuTari Teoriebis gansamtkiceblad. xandaxan kvlevebi amtkicebs Cvens warmodgenebs socialur cxovrebaze , xandaxan ki ara. gaaanalizeT Semdegi mtkicebuleba da gadawyviteT TqvenTvis romeli maTgani aris WeSmariti da romelia mcdari.. :

. sapirispiro sqesis warmomadgenlis SerCevisas , aseve megobris SerCevis dros mTavari principi riTac moqmedebT mizidulobaa.

. rodesac adamianebi raimeTi arian Sewuxebulni , isini amjobineben sxva adamianTa garemoSi yofnas.

. tele reklamas , romelic cdilobs daaSinos adamianebi, rogorc wesi mivyavarT sawinaaRmdego Sedegamde da naklebad efeqturia , vidre reklama romelic ar iwvevs SiSis grZnobas .

. Tu Tqven uxdiT adamianebs imisTvis rom maT warmoTqvan sityva , da am warmosaTqmelis Sinaarsi ewinaaRmdegeba maT Sexedulebas , SegviZlia vivaraudoT rom isini Secvlian TavianT azrs am sityvasTan dakavSirebiT. Dda kidev rac ufro mets gadavuxdiT , miT ufro mniSvnelovnad iqneba maTi piradi azri Secvlili.

am wignSi, mocemuli gamokvlevebidan mixvdebiT rom yvela es mtkicebuleba gamartivebulia , zogi ki mcdaria. kiTxva : ratom mivyavarT socialur cxovrebaze araformalur dakvirvebebs xandaxan araswor daskvnebamde? xSirad Cveni piradi gancdebi ar aris tipiuri ( msgavsi) sxva adamianTa gancdebis an imaTTan SedarebiT rogoric arsebobs zogadad socialur situaciebSi. xandaxan Cven veqceviT raimis zegavlenis qveS , arasworad aRviqvavT momxdars, Cven vxedavT sagnebs iseTebad rogoradac gvinda rom davinaxoT , da ara iseTebad rogoricaa sinamdvileSi. xandaxan yvelafers vxedavT sworad , Tumca vimaxsovrebT arasworad . am yvela principis gaTvaliswinebiT mecnierebi TavianTi kvlevebisas cdiloben gamoiyenon yvelanairi xerxi raTa airidon amdagvari araobieqturobani. Ffsiqologebi iRwvian daakvirdnen adamianTa tipiur jgufebs da Tvalyuri adevnon “ xarisxs” , isini ar eyrdnobian maxsovrobas an zogad STabeWdilebebs. magaliTad fsiqologias akritikeben imisTvis rom xSirad kvlevis obieqtad irCeven kolejis TeTr studentebs , romlebic saSualo fenas warmoadgenen, --- jgufs romelic arc maincdamainc SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes rogorc sazogadoeba erTianobaSi. Tumca samecniero kvlevebi imasac sazRvravs rom moaxdinos identifikacia.

socialur fsiqologiur kvlevebs gaaCniaT oTxi mTavari mizani:

. aRwera.------ mTavar mizans warmoadgens Zirfesvianad Sesruleba da sistematiuri aRwera socialuri qcevis., rac nebas aZlevs socialur fsiqologebs gaakeTon daskvnebi imis Sesaxeb Tu rogor iqceva adamiani sxvadasxva socialur situaciaSi. simarTlea is rom kacebi metad agresiulebi arian vidre qalebi?arsebobs ki tipiuri reaqcia romelic vlindeba sasiyvarulo kavSirisas?ra piroba muSaobs adamianze ufro produqtiulad, problemis gadawyvetis gaazreba, martooba an jgufSi yofna ? saboloo codna adamianTa qcevis Sesaxeb aucilebelia.

. mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris analizi____ fsiqologiuri kvleva mimarTuli kavSiris damyarebisken mizezsa da Sedegs Soris. namdvilad axdens kompaniis ZviradRirebuli telereklama gavlenas xmis micemaze da arCevaze? warmoadgens ki swavleba kolejSi mizezs imisa rom studentebi xdebian ufro liberalurebi TavianT socialur ganlagebaSi? nebismieri mTavari samecniero debuleba eyrdnoba kvlevebs romelic mimarTulia mizez-Sedegobriobis gansazRvras.

. Teoriis Seqmna. mesame mizani---Teoriis damuSaveba socialuri qcevis Sesaxeb , romelic exmareba socialur fsiqologias gaigos,Tu ratom iqcvian adamianebi zustad ase. roca mkvlevarebi mets igeben zogad principebze da gansakuTrebulebaze gansazRvruli tipis qcevisa,isini aRweven socialuri cxovrebis saukeTeso gagebas. Teoriebi exmareba fsiqologebs organizacia gauwion TavianT codnas socialuri qcevis Sesaxeb , romelsac SeuZlia miiyvanos axal midgomebTan, aseve romlebic SeiZleba aris Catarebuli uZveles gamokvlevebSi.

. gamoyeneba . socialuri-fsiqologiuri codna SeiZleba daexmaros Tanamedrove socialuri problemebis gadawvetas. magaliTad, socialuri fsiqologiis gamoyeneba SeiZleba aRmoCndes sasargeblo adamianTa swavlebaSi akontrolon TavianTi agresiuli impulsebi an piradi urTierTobebis Seqmnisas, romlsac moaqvs meti dakmayofileba. maT aseve SeuZliaT daexmaron politikosebs ipovon SesaZlebloba daajeron xalxni magaliaTad wlis ekonomiuri moxmarebaSi. dResdReisobiT mkvlevarebi iyeneben socialur-fsiqologiur principebs imisTvis rom ipovon saSualeba,romelic nebas miscems daexmaros seqsualur aqtiur xalxs gaxadon TavianT seqsualuri praqtika ufro usafrTxo, an raTa gaigon saSiSroeba adamianebTan pizikuri urTierTobisas daifincirde SidsiT.

kvlevis monawileTa SerCeva

Tu mkvlevarebs surT ganavrcon TavianTi daskvnebi qalebTan dakavSirebiT romlebic muSaoben mTeli dRis grafikiT, maT unda Seiswavlon momuSave qalebi. Mmagram isic viciT rom isini verasdros ver SeZleben Seiswavlon yvela momuSave qali. Aamitomac isini atareben kvlevebs arcise didi raodenobis qalebze , iseTi meTodiT SerCeulebze rom moicavdnen mravalnairi jgufis warmomadgenlebs. Aamas qvia reprezentatuli SerCeva.

ukeTesi saSualebaa maqsimalurad avarCioT sxvadasxva jgufis qalebi esaa SemtxveviTi SerCeva maTi adamianTa farTo jgufidan. SemTxveviTi SerCeva____roca yvela adamians aqvs Sansi iyvnen didi jgufidan SerCeulni kvlevisTvis. magaliTad TbilisSi SemTxveviTi SerCeva satelefono wignis daxmarebiT .

umetes SemTxvevaSi socialuri fsiqologia iRwvis imisken rom maTi kvlevis Sedegi iyos morgebuli yvela adamianze da ara marto bostonis universitetis studentebze an kidev umaRlesi fenis warmomadgenel moswavleebze torontoSi.

Tumca SemTxveviTi SerCevis meTodi farTo wreze ZaladobasTan dakavSirebiT Zviri jdeba, amitomac socialur fsiqologia cdilobs realurad wavides kompromisze. am SemTxvevaSi kompromiss warmoadgens kolejis SigniT SerCeva. xSirad amboben, rom amerikeli socialuri fsiqologebi sakvlevad irCeven kolejis meore kursis studentebs, imitom rom isini arian advilad misaRwevi adamianuri materiis mqoneni. daaxloebiT 75% statiisa aris miZRvnili socialur fsiqologiuri problemaze, romelic asaxavs kvlevebs sadac sakvlev adamianebs warmoadgenen studentebi. nuTu SegviZlia davkmayofildeT imiT rom Cven gviwevs SerCeuli kolejis studentebze dayrdnoba.

zogierT kvlevebSi mizans romelic warmoadgens SevamowmoT ZiriTadi Teoriebi, SerCevis reprezentatulobas SeiZleba ar qondes didi mniSvneloba. magaliTad, frustrirebuli agresiis determniaciis hipoTezas SeuZlia moergos imaT vinc swavlobs skolaSi, saxelmwifo transportis mgzavrebs, romlebic midian samsaxurSi, myidvelebs qalaqgare savaWro centrSi an kolejis studentebs. sxva mxriv kolejis studentebi yovelTvis ar gamodgebian kvlevebisTvis. magaliaTad, mkvlevarebs elodebaT gascen im kiTxvebze pasuxi, Tu ra ukeTesia Semoitanon kompiuterebi samuSao ofisSi Tu datovos yvela TanamSromeli romlebic bevri weli muSaobdnen erTad. ar iqneba Wkvianuri SeviswavloT es sakiTxi SerCevis meTodiT ucnob adamianTa Soris magaliaTad, kolejis studentTa Soris, romlebsac ar aqvT aranairi gamocdileba ofisSi muSaobis , magram amasTan erTad regularulad iyeneben kompiuters. amdagvari sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas kvleviTi samuSao romelic Catardeboda studentebiT aucileblad migviyvanda Cixamde da araswor daskvnamde.

saerTo jamSi kolejis studentebi ufro axalgazrdani arian ukaviaT ufro maRali socialuri safexuri da ukeT avlenen TavianT Tavs testebis dros, vidre umetesoba adamianebisa. isini SeiZleba iyvnen ufro Rianni da mimReblebi cvliebebisadmi. magaliaTad, kvlevis Catarebis dros pirovnebam aucilebelia miiRos is faqti rom umravlesoba kolejis studetebisa arian ufro axalgazrdani da maTi pirovneba jer kidev ar Camoyalibebula mTlianad vidre ufros adamianebSi , aseve samarTliani iqneba vTqvaT maT politikur da socialur mdgomareobaze, Tumca kolejis studentebi warmoadgenen yvelaze karg obieqtebs gamosakvlevad, isini yovelTvis ar arian Sesaferisi monawileebi socialur fsiqologiuri kvlevebisTvis.

fsiqologiur kvlevebs akritikeben aseve imisTvis rom misi monawileebi ZiriTadSi arian TeTri kacebi. 1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi fsiqolog fenimistebma aRniSnes zogadi tendencia mTlian samyaroSi rom kvlevis monawileni iyvnen mamrobiTi sqesis ufro vidre mdedrobiTis .da naklebi sadac kvlevis monawileni iyvnen orive sqesis warmomadgeneli da kidev kvlevebi sadac ikvlevdnen agresias an miRwevis motivacias kvlevis obieqtebi iyvnen mabrobiTi sqesis. da ismeoda kiTxva SeiZleba ki miRebuli Sedegi gamoviyenoT qalebis SemTxvevaSi. Sedegad SemdegSi ukve Seitanes cvlilebebi fsiqologebma dadebiTi cvlilebebi genderuli balansis gamokvlevebSi.

eTnikuri umciresobis wevrebi aseve mTels msoflioSi arian fsiqologiuri kvlevis monawileebi, da amdagvari situacia inaxeba dResdReisobiTac. magaliTad, sandra grexamma analizi gaukeTa zogad tendencias kvlevebSi, romelic iyo miZRvnili afroamerikelebisadmi, romelic gamoqveynda 6 uZlieres fsiqologiur JurnalSi 1970 wlidan 1989 wlamde. am Jurnalebidan Cans rom afroamerikelebi iyvnen mTavari obieqtebi kvlevebisa romelSic adarebdnen mocemul or an met rasul jgufs. saerTod da mTlianad mxolod 3,6% am qalis mier wakiTxuli statiebidan Seesabameboda am erT-erT kriteriums, saerTo raodenoba statiebisa romelic iyo miZRvnili afroamerikelebisadmi, dadablda 5,2%-ze 1970 wlis dasawyisSi 2%-iT 1980 wlamde. im faqtis aRniSvniT rom Zaladoba SeerTebul StatebSi xdeba eTnikur jgufebze. grexami gvafrTxilebs rom “akademiur fsiqologias ar SeuZlia SeinarCunos sakuTari gulwrfeloba, datovos eTnikuri umciresobebi ganze ZiriTadi kvlevebidan” (1992). kolejis studentTa fsiqologias SeuZlia ki zusti suraTi mogvcen adamianTa fsiqologiis Sesaxeb da SeuZlia ki uzrunvelgvyos Sesatyvisi safuZvliT social problemebze fsiqologiuri principebis gadasatanad ?!.

Kkulturuli faqtebi

A amerikaSi Zaladobis mravalferovneba

Zaladobis monacemTa komitetis Tanaxmad aSS (1997) , daaxloebiT 75% amerikeli _ TeTrebi ara laTinuri warmoSobis, 12%_amerikelebi afrikuli warmoSobis, 10% _ laTinoamerikelebi ( yvelanairi nacionalobis warmomadgenlebi ) , 3%_ aziuri warmoSobis amerikelebi da wynariokeanis kunZulebidan wamosulebi da 1% ze nalebi _ adgilobrivi amerikelebi. Ddemografebi winaswarmetyveleben rom 21-e saukuneSi ZaladobaTa nakrebi eTnikur jgufebze SeerTebul StatebSi ganicdis mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs. amisTvis gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgens imigracia. 7 milionze meti immigranti romeli Camosuli iyo amerikaSi 1980 wels , iqidan 20% ze naklebi Camovida evropidan . magaliTad , 4 kaci 5 dan Camovida aziidan , laTinuri amerikidan (immigration & naturalization service , 1989).

Dadgenilia rom 2050 wlisTvis tetrebi , romlebic ar arian laTinoamerikelebi , maTi mxridan iqneba mxolod 53 % Cadenili Zaladoba SeerTebul StatebSi , laTinoamerikelebi _ daaxloebiT 24 % afrikuli warmoSobnis ameriklebi ._ daaxloebiT 14 % , da amerikelebi aziuri warmomavlobis daaxloebiT 8% .adgilobriv amerikelTa raodenoba , daaxloebiT iqneba 1 % ze naklebi .

amerikuli sazogadoeba ganicdis aseve sxva cvlilebebs. mniSvnelovani xarisxiT gaizarda sazogadoebaSi lesboselTa da homoseqsualistTa saaSkaraoze gamosvlis done. imis miuxedavad rom aravin darwmunebiT ar icis rogor ganisazRvreba seqsualuri orientacia amerikul Zaladobas Soris, daaxloebiTi gaTvlebiT 7-dan 10-i milionamde adamiani ---- aris homoseqsualisti da lesboseli magram ucnobia raodenoba danarCeni biseqsualebisa.

Aamis garda gamudmebiT izrdeba adamianTa ricxvi vinc daxmarebas iTxovs. 1960 wels 10%-ze naklebi amirikelisgan Sedgeboda 65 wlis an meti adamiani. dRes es cifri gaizarda 14%-iT. dadgenilia rom 2025 wels am asakis adamianTa kategoria iqneba daaxloebiT 20%-i. Cndeba informacia im adamianTa ricxvis gazrdisa romelnic arian qmediTuunaroni .dadgenilia rom daaxloebiT 12%-i amerikeli 14 welze metis arian mZime formis invalidebi, romelTac es xels uSlis iaron skolaSi, akeTon saSinao davalebebi an imuSaon. maT ricxvSi Sedis brmebi, yruebi an kidev paraliCianebi, da aseve sxva invalidis formis gamovlinebebi iseTebi rogoricaa arTriti, diabeti da zurgis mZime daavadebebi, romelic arTulebs yoveldRiur cxovrebas.

Mmocemuli magaliTebi asaxaven daujerebel socialur da kulturul saxesxvaobebs romelic arsebobs amerikaSi . Cven gadavdivarT 21-e saukuneSi da mTavari amocana romelic Cvens winaSe dgas, aris kvlevis gafarToeba raTa socialuri fsiqologia namdvilad gaxdes yoveldRiuri fsiqologia.

Aazrze xarT amaTTvis 21-e saukune jer ar damdgara : DDD au rodindeli wignia…. . . . .

Kkvlevis korelaciuri meTodi eqsperimenulTan SedarebaSi

imis Semdeg rac mkvlevarebi gadawyveten riTi dakavdebian da ra kiTxvaze moZebnian pasuxs, maT rCebaT kidev erTi mTavari sakiTxi gadasawyveti: rogor Caataron kvleva. arsebobs ori ZiriTadi meTodi kvlevisa: korelaciuri da eqperimenuli. korelaciuri kvlevis meTodi tardeba Zirfesviani dakvirvebiTa da korelaciuri registraciiT or da met faqtors Soris. magaliTad, mkvlevarebma SeiZleba dasvan kiTxva imis Sesaxeb kavSirSia ki fizikuri mimzvidveloba studentisa mis popularobasTan biWebs Soris. korelaciuri meTodis gamoyenebisas mkvlevarebi ar avlenen aranair zegavnelas studentis qcevaze, mxolod aregistrireben informacias TviToeulis mimzvidelobaze da imis Sesaxeb Tu ra doneze moswonT sxva studentebs is biWi an gogo.

piriqiT gamoyofili niSnebi eqperimentuli kvlevis meTodisa waroadgens Carevas: mkvlevari adamianebs situaciis kontrolirebisas ereva kvlevaSi da afasebs maT reaqciebs. kavSiris Sesaswavlad fizikur mimzidvelobasa da popularobas Soris, iyeneben eqperimentul meTods, aseve SeiZleba gamoviyenoT daqiravebuli damxmare, romelic xandaxan midis ise rom Candes mimzidveli, da xandaxan ise rom gamoiyurebodes piriqiT. Semdeg mkvlevars SeuZlia moiwvios studentebi nebayoflobiT laboratoriaSi xanmokle urTierTobisTvis sxva studentebTan. Sexvedris Semdeg fasdeba is Tu ramdenad moewonaT studentebs Cven mier daqiravebuli damxmare (cru cdis piri). uZvelesi eqperimentuli kvlevis meTodis CarCoebSi kontrolirdeba is Tu ramdenad moewona students da ratom. an piriqiT ar CaTvala mimzidvelad da ratom.

korelaciuri kvleva moicavs or da met faqtors Soris kavSirs. ZiriTadi kiTxva romelic udgebaT mecnierebs romlebic atareben korelaciur kvlevas, warmoadgens kavSirs cvlilebebs Soris. ufro zustad rom vTqvaT roca cvladi pozotiuri korelaciisaa an negatiuri korelaciis an kidev ar arsebobs korelacia. simaRles da wonas Soris arsebobs pozitiuri korelacia imitom rom maRali adamianebi rogorc wesi iwonian mets vidre dabali adamianebi. piriqiT raodenobebs Soris vimedovnebT rom Cvenze tansacmeli da haeris temperatura gansazRvrul dReebSi __ arsebobs uaryofiTi korelacia __ rogorc wesi cxel dReebSi adamianebi icmeven cota tansacmels. Tumca simaRlesa da tansacmlis raodenobas Soris SeiZleba ar arsebobs korelacia rogorc maRali da dabali icmevs erTnairi raodenobis tansacmels.

kargi magaliTi korelaciuri kvlevisa emsaxureba SesaZlo kavSiris Seswavlas Zaladobis scenisa, romelsac aCveneben televiziiT agresiuli qceviT. korelaciuri kvleva ganixilavs kavSirs Tu ramden dros atarebs bavSvi satelevizio programis yurebisas, sadac aCveneben Zaladobasa da agresiuli qcevis gamovlinebebs, romelsac SemdegSi gamoavlens bavSvi. uyureben ki bavSvebi umetesad televizorSi? xusmanma gansazRvra rom moswavleebi dawyebiTi klasebis romlebic uyureben ufro metad programebs sadac naCvenebia Zaladobis scenebi, gamoxataven TavianT TanaklaselebTan agresiulobas. mocemul kvlevaSi warmodgenilia pozitiuri korelacia satelevizio programis yurebasa da Zaladobis demonstracias Soris_bavSvTa agresiuli qcevebi.

kvlevis korelaciuri sqemebi moicaven rig upiratesobebs. pirvel rigSi isini aZlveven nebas mkvlevarebs Seiswavlon problemebi Caerion sadac SeuZlebelia. magaliTad, mecnierebebs ar SeuZliaT SemTxveviTi principze dayrdnobiT daaZalon adamianebs ganicadon vnebiani siyvaruli, SeigrZnon miwisZvra an onkologiuri daavadeba, Sesabamisi faqtorebi aucileblad ar aris kontrolirebadi da arc maSin Tu xelovnurad vqmniT garemoebebs. rogorc eTikuri ise praqtikuli warmodgenebi sazRvraven Cvens kvlevaSi Carevis SesaZleblobas, sxva adamianTa cxovrebaSi. amdagvar situaciebSi korelaciuri kvleva gvTavazobs ukeTes SesaZleblobas meTodebis gagebisa,romelic ukavSirdeba mravalferovan faqtorebs adamianTa cxovrebisas.

upiratesoba korelaciuri kvlevisa ---- esaa efeqturoba. korelaciuri kvlevebi exmareba mecnierebs Seagrovon gacilebiT meti informacia da moargon umetesi raodenobis kavSirebi, vidre es SeiZleba gakeTdes umetes sxva eqperimentebSi. korelaciuri midgomis gamoyenebisas mizezis gasagebad metad agresiuli qcevisas zogierTi adamianis mier mkvlevarebs SeuZliaT Seagrovon informacia Zalian bevri faqtoris Sesaxeb, rogoricaa teleprogramebis yureba, ojaxis istoria, inteleqti, pirovnuli Tvisebebi, sxva bavSvebTan damokidebuleba da sxva. ufro metic mkvlevarebs SeuZliaT Seafason agresiuli qceva sxva da sxva saSualebebiT: maswavleblis STabeWdilebebis, sakuTari dakvirvebebiT bavSvebze skolaSi, bavSvis reputacia rogorc agresoris sxva bavSvebs Soris, mSobelTa Setyobineba da sxva. aseve maT SeuZliaT gamoiyenon statistikuri meTodebi am krebulebs Soris kavSiris dasamyareblad. eqperimentuli meTodi ar warmoadgens sakmarisad efeqturs didi nakrebis cvlilebebisTvis.

imis miuxedavad rom korelaciuri kvlevis meTodi aris sasargeblo imis asaxsnelad Tu ramdenadaa dakavSirebuli cvladebi, isini ar uzrunvelyofen mkveTr mtkicebulebebs mizez--Sedegobrivi kavSirisa. korelaciuri kvlevis Catarebisas mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri SeiZleba iyos gaugebari ori mizeziT. ukumizezis problema wamoiWreba maSin roca ori cvladi dakavSirebulia erTmaneTTan SeiZleba iyos mizezic da aseve Sedegic. am SemTxvevaSi Cven viciT rom cvladebi a da b dakavSirebulni arian, magram Cven ar SegviZlia vTqvaT warmoadgens ki a _ b-s mizezs da piriqiT. magaliTad Zaladoba romelsac aCveneben televiziiT aris ki mizezi agresiisa romelic vlindeba bavSvebSi. SeiZleba bavSvebi ukiduresad agresiulni TavianT qcevaSi, didi interesiT adevnebdnen Tvalyurs Cxubebs da amitomac atareben umetes dros teleprogramebis yurebisas, romelic moicavs agresiul scenebs. mocemuli korelacia ar gvaCvenebs Tu romeli cvladebi aris mizezi da romeli Sedegi.

kidev erTi seriozuli problema korelaciuri kvlevisa,romelsac SeuZlia migviyvanos ganusazRvrelobamde,---- ucvladi a, ucvladi b ar avlenen pirdapir gavlenas erTmaneTze. SeiZleba kidev raime sxva ganusazRvrel faqtorma moaxdinos maTze zegavlena am SemTxvevaSi vejaxebiT mesame cvladis problemas. magaliTad, korelaciam Zaladobebs Soris naCvenebi televiziiT da agresiuli qcevebiT SeiZleba gamoiwvios raime mesame faqtori da TavisTavad televizia SeiZleba arc iyos mizezi agresiuli qcevis formirebisa.

am rTulma momentebma SeiZleba yovelTvis Segviqmnas problemebi korelaciuri kvlevisas.zogierT SemTxvevaSi fsiqologebs SeuZliaT amoagdon ukumizezi. magaliTad, bevrma mkvlevarma aCvena korelacia sqessa da agresiul qcevas Soris. mamakacebi ufro agresiulebi arian vidre qalebi, magram am SemTxvevaSi ar SegviZlia vTqvaT bavSvis sqesi aris mizezi Zaladobrivi qmedebisa.

mesame cvladis problema yovelTvis ar warmoadgens siZneles romelsac Tavs ver avaridebT, xandaxan mkvlevarebs SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon kontroli romelic daexmareba gansazRvron namdvilad aris Tu ara saSiSroeba imisa rom mesame cvladi agebs pasuxs korelaciaze romelsac isini akvirdebian. magaliaTad, maT SeuZliaT daamaton Sefaseba frustraciisa da mZvinvarebisa, romelic arsebobs bavSvis ojaxSi, korelaciuri kvlevis meTodebSi mecnierebebi dawyebiTi klasis romelic Catarebulia hausmanis mier. Semdeg maT SeuZliaT gaakontrolon namdvilad aris Tu ara korelacia teleprogramebis yurebasa da agresiuli qcevas Soris, gansakuTrebiT saxlis situaciaSi.xdeba ki es mxolod im ojaxebSi sadac xSiria frustrireba an bednier ojaxebSi,am yvelafris gaTvaliswinebiT mecnierebs SeuZliaT daaskvnan mesame cvladis Sesaxeb rom igi ar warmoadgens pirvelad korelacias.

SeiZleba aseve gamoCndes ukve meoTxe problema romelic mkvlevarebs ar SeuswavliaT, magaliaTad verbaruli unarebi. SeiZleba bavSvebs aqvT susti verbaruli unari, amjobineben televiziis yurebas romelSic aris umetesad fizikuri aqtiobebi.

eqperimentuli kvlevis mimdinareobisas iqmneba ori tipis piroba, romelic xSirad sazRvravs erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebulobas. individebi romlebic arian SemTxveviTi SerCeviT arCeulebi xdeba maTze dakvirveba da Sefaseba maTi reaqciis. magaliTad, eqsperimenti romelic warmoadgens Zaladobis demonstracias masobrivi informaciebis saSualebiT. bavSvTa erT jgufSi SeiZleba iyos naCvenebi filmi sadac Zaladobis scenebia, da sxva jgufSi --- filmi sadac naCvenebi ar aris aseTi scenebi. Semdeg yvela es bavSvi ereva erTmaneTs da imyofebian erT situaciaSi, sadac aCveneben films Zaladobis scenebiT, im SemTxvevaSi Tu isini gamoavlenen agresiulobas Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT rom satelevizio agresia aris mizezi agresiuli qcevisa.

hartmanma Caatara es eqperimenti sadac naxevar biWebs aCvenes or wuTiani filmi sadac ori biWi Tavidan agdebdnen kalaTSi burTs, Semdeg iwyebdnen kamaTs da boloSi ukve Cxubs (fizikuri agresia). Yyurebis Semdeg TiToeul biWs sTxoves monawileoba sadac sakvlevi obieqti gamodioda maswavleblis rolSi romelic iyenebda eleqtroSoks moswavleze yvela SemTxvevaSi, roca is uSvebda Secdomas garkveuli davalebis Sesrulebisas. maswavlebels SeeZlo ecvala eleqtroSokis siZliere ise rogorc mas surda gansazRvrul situaciebSi (eleqtroSoki ar iyo namdvili da is moswavle warmoadgenda eqperimentis damxmares). biWebi romlebmac uyures films Zaladobis scenebiT avlendnen eleqtroSokis maRal gamoyenebas vidre isini vinc uyura films Zaladobis scenebis gareSe. mocemul situaciaSi Zaladobis scenebiT filmi warmoadgens mizezs agresiuli qcevisa (eleqtroSokis maRali gamoyeneba).

udidesi Zalaufleba eqperimentuli meTodisa mdgomareobs imaSi rom is icilebs gaurkvevlobas romelic dakavSirebulia mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirebTan ,romelic afuWebs umetesi korelaciur kvlevebs. eqperimentatorebi SemTxveviTi ganrigebiT xels uSlian adamianebs sxva da sxva pirobebSi raTa gansazRvron arsebuli gansxvavebulebebi maT reaqciebSi . Tu eqperimenti iqna Catarebuli saWiro gziT, nebismieri gansxvavebuloba reaqciebSi or pirobiT unda iyos gansazRvruli Tavad pirobebTan. iyeneben ufro formarul terminologias SeiZleba iTqvas rom faqtorebi romelsac akontroleben mkvlevarebi (mizezi) hqvia damoukidebeli cvladi. imitom rom is gansazRvrulia Tavad mkvlevarebis mier. hartmanis kvlevebis SemTxvevaSi damoukidebeli cvladi iyo filmis tipi romelsac uyurebdnen biWebi.

40 – 47 (Teona mesxis Targmani)

rezultats, an Sedegs, romelic Seiswavleba, hqvia damokidebuli cvladi, radgan misi sidide damokidebulia damoukidebel cvladze. Hhartmanis gamokvlevis SemTxvevaSi damokidebul cvlads warmoadgnda eleqtruli ganmuxtva, romlsac sakvlevi piri gamoiyenebda sxva adamianis mimarT. eqsperimentebi warmoudgenen mecnierbs imis naTel mtkicebebs, rom damokidebuli cvladebis sxvaoba ganpirobebulia damoukidebeli cvladebis sxvaobiT.

Eeqsperimntul gamokvlevebSi didi yuradReba eTmoba damoukidebeli da damokidebuli cvladebis Seqmnas. Cveulbriv, fsiqologi iwyebs gansaxilvli cvladis abstraqtuli an konceptualuri gansazRvriT. Mmag, cvladi, rogorc im qcevebze dakvirveba, romlbic adamianebs ayeneben tkivils an mimarTulia sxva adamianisTvis tkivilis miyenebisken. Semdg mkvlevari unda gadavides am zogadi gansazRvrebidan operaciul gansazRvrebaze.

Oopraciuli gansazRvreba warmoadgens specifiur meTods an xerxs, rac gamoiyeneba cvladiT manipulirebis an misi gazomvisTvis eqsperimentis msvlelobisas.

Mmag, eqsperimentators SeuZlia Seqmnas filmis ori varianti: erTi – Zaladobis scenebiT, xolo meore – mis gareSe. Tu eqsperimentatori cdilobs manipulaciebs mxolod filmSi asaxuli Zaladobis moculobiT, maSin am or films ar eqneba sxva gansxvavebebi: xangrZlioba erTnairi iqneba , orive iqneba feradi an Sav-TeTri da a.S. damoukidbeli cvladis gakontrolebas aqvs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, imitom, rom es aZlevs saSualebas eqsperimentators miuTiTos adamianTa or jgufs Soris nebismiri gansxvavebis mizezze.

korelaciuri da eqsperimentuli kvlevebis Sedareba 1.1

korelaciuli eqsperimentuli

damoukidebeli cvladi bunebrivad varirebs kontroldeba

eqsperimentatoris mier

SemTxveviTi ganawileba ara ki

Mmizez-Sedegobrivi kav- Cveulebriv, ara ki

Sirebis gansazRvruloba

sasinji kvleva xSirad Cveulbriv, ara

Teoriis Semowmeba xSirad Cvulebriv

Aamowmebs mravalricxo- Cveulebriv Cvulebriv, ara

van kavSirebs

eqsperimentis meore mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia sacdel pirTa ganTavseba cdis pirobebSi SemTxveviTad. Ees SeiZleba gakeTdes monetis agdebis, kartebis ganlagebis Aan, rac yvlaze xSirad gvxvdeba, SemTxveviTi ricxvebis tabulebis gamoyenebiT. sacdel pirTa SemTxveviT ganawilebas eqsperimentis pirobebTan mimarTebaSi aqvs Zalian didi mniSvneloba, radgan es ganapirobebs sacdel pirTaTvis Seqmnil pirobebs Soris gansxvavebebis SemTxveviT gansazRvras. Tu sacdel pirebs jgufSi Tavidanve hqondaT ramenairi sistemuri gansxvavebebi, mkvlevarebi ver SeZleben axsnan SemdgomSi warmoqmnili nebismieri gansxvaveba, rogorc uSualod eqsperimentis pirobiT warmoqmnilni. Qqcevebs Soris gansxvavbas SeiZleba ganapirobebdes eqsperimentamde arsebuli faqtorebi da ara damoukidebeli cvladi. 1.1 cxrilSi motanilia kvlevis korelaciuri da eqsperimentuli meTodebis Sdareba.

savele da laboratoriuli pirobebi

kvlevis organizaciis erT-erTi sakiTxia, Tu sad unda Catardes igi – savele pirobebSi Tu laboratoriaSi. “velad” Catarebuli kvleva swavlobs qcvebs “bunebriv pirobebSi.” Mmkvlevarebs SeuZlLiaT gamoikvlion qarxnis muSebis Sromis nayofiereba qarxanaSi, an mgzavrTa reaqcia gansakuTrebul situaciebSi metros im matarebelSI, romliTac isini, Cveulebriv, samsaxurSi midian, an kolejis studentebis damokidbuleba Tavis mezoblebTan ppirdapir saerTo sacxovrebelSi.

Aamis sapirispirod, laboratoriuli kvlevbi tardeba xelovnurad Seqmnil, rogorc wesi, cdis pirTaTvis uCveulo, situaciaSi. zogierTi laboratoriuli gamokvleva tardeba spcialurad aRWurvil SenobaSi, romelime kolejis an sakvlevi institutis fsiqologiuri ganyofilbis SenobaSi. Llaboratoria SeiZleba aRWurvili iyos specialuri mowyobilobis yvla saxeobiT, rogoricaa videomonitorebi cdis pirTaTvis filmebis demonstrirebisaTvis, audioaparaturiT, rac jgufur urTirTobebze dakvirvebis saSualebas iZleva, kompiuterebiT. Llaboratoria SeiZleba gamoiyurebodes Cveulebrivi oTaxiviT an rogorc saleqcio darbazi, sadac adamianebs SeuZliaT mag, anketebis Sevseba. mTavari momentia is, rom cdis piri aRmoCndeba im pirobebSi, romelic SeirCeva da kontroldeba mkvlevaris mier. rogorc eqsperimentuli, ise korelaciuri kvlevebi SeiZleba Catardes rogorc laboratoriaSi, aseve savele pirobebSi, da yovelgvar pirobas aqvs Tavisi upiratesoba da Tavisi nakli.

Llaboratoriuli kvlevis ZiriTadi upiratesobaa situaciis gakontrolebis SesaZlebloba. Mmkvlevarebi sruliad darwmunebulni SeiZleba iyon imaSi, TuU ra daemarTeba TiToeul cdispirs. saeqsperimento samuSaos Catarebisas maT SeuZliaT ganaTavson cdis pirebi sxvadasxva pirobebSi SemTxveviTi SerCeviT, moaxdinon maTze garkveuli zemoqmdeba, daiyvanon minimumamde gare faqtorebis zemoqmedeba da grZeli gza gaiaron procdurebis arasasurveli gadaxrebis Tavidan asacileblad. laboratoriaSi momuSave mkvlevarebs saSualeba aqvT damoukidebel cvladebze kontrolisa da SeuZliaT mogvcen Sedegebis ufro zusti Sefaseba, vidre es savele pirobebSia SesaZlebeli. maSasadame, laboratoria – esaa idealuri adgili erTi cvladis meoreze mkacri zemoqmedebis Sesaswavlad. Yyvela es upiratesoba gaerTianebulia erTi saerTo saxelwodebiT – Sinagani validuroba. Sinagani validuroba maRalia, rodesac mkvlevarebs SeuZliaT darwmunebuli iyon, rom Sedegbi, romlebsac isini akvirdebian damokidebul cvladSi, namdvilad ganisazRvrebian im damoukidebeli cvladiT, romliTac manipulireben isini eqsperimentis msvlelobisas (da ar arian damokidbuli sxva arakontrolirebul faqtorebze).

savele pirobebSi SeiZleba cdis pirebi moaTavso garkveul pirobebSi SemTxveviTad, darwmunebuli iyo, rom yvelani ganicdian erTsa da imaves, da awarmoo damokidebuli cvladis zusti aTvlebi. kerZod, rTulia imanipuliro damoukidbeli cvladiT cTomilebis gareSe da miiRo damokidebuli cvladis sufTa Sefaseba. Mmkvlevarma unda aRmoaCinos da daajgufos pirobebi, romlebic iwvevs monacemTa garkveul gansxvavebas.

feSbaxis da skineris mier Catarebul rTul mravaldonian savele kvlevebSi, sadac ikvlevdnen Zaladobis satelevizio scenebis gavlenas, swavlobdnen mozardi asakis biWebs, romlebic cxovrobdnen kaliforniis da niu-iorkis 7 sxvadasxva skola-internatSi. skolis personalis meSvobiT mkvlevarebs miecaT saSualeba SemTxveviT SerCeuli bavSvebisTvis gamoeyenebinaT ori gansxvavebuli “satelevizio dieta.” 6kviris manZilze yvela biWi, aranakleb 6 saaTisa kviraSi, uyurebdnen specialurad SerCeul satelevizio Sous, rasac aCvenebdnen im dros, rodesac gadacemebs uyurebs telemayurebelTa maqsimaluri raodenoba. erT SemTxvevaSi, rac iTvaliswinebda Zaladobis scenebis Cvenebas, biWebi uyurebdnen agresiuli Sinaarsis Sous, vesternebis da kriminaluri istoriebis CarTviT. Mmeore SemTxvevaSi, rac iTvaliswinebda teleprogramis yurebas Zaladobis scenebis gareSe, biWebi uyurebdnen situaciur komediebs da sxva araagresiul programebs. biWebis qcevis Sefaseba, rasac iZleoda personali, Seadgenda agresiis Sefasebas. Mmosalodneli Sedegebis sawinaaRmdegod, mkvlevarebma gamoavlines, rom agresiis scenebis mayurebeli biWebis agresiuloba sinamdvileSi ufro dabali iyo, vidre meore jgufSi. aRmoCnda, rom Zaladobis scenebis Semcveli telegadacemebis yurebam daaqveiTa agresiuli qceva. riT SeiZleba aixsnas aseTi moulodneli Sedegi?

Mkvlevarebma daadgines, rom biWebis umetesobas erCia gadacemebi, romlebic Sicavdnen Zaladobis did moculobas. maSasadame, biWebs, romelTac mouwiaT araZladobrivi programebis yureba, SeiZleba ganecadaT meti frustracia, vidre meore jgufis wevrebs da es dakavSirebuli iyo im faqtTan, rom maT ar SeeZloT sayvareli programebis naxva. Sesabamisad, Cven ar SegviZlia zustad gavarkvioT Sedegebi ganpirobebulia Sous SinaarsiT, Tu frustraciis xarisxis sxvaobiT im biWebs Soris, romelTagan erTni uyurbdnen Zaladobis Semcvel satelevizio programebs, xolo sxvebs maTi naxva ar SeeZloT. aseTi problema ar SeiZleboda aRmocnebuliyo laboratoriuli kvlevis pirobebSi imitom, rom mkvlvarebi ar iqnebodnen iZulebulni Careuliyvnen biWebisTvis Cveuli satelevizio programebis yurebis praqtikaSi, da amgvarad, es ar migviyvanda erT jgufSi frustraciis gamovlenasa da meore jgufSi mis ararsebobasTan.

laboratoriaSi muSaobis kidev erTi upiratesoba misi moxrxebuloba da siiafea. Cveulebriv, mkvlevarebisTvis ufro advilia da iafia maT ofisTan axlos ganlagebul oTaxSi muSaoba, vidre is,rom gaemgzavron gamosakvlev pirTa sacxovrbel an samuSao adgilas.

savele pirobebis yvelaze TvalsaCino upiratesobaa is, rom isini ufro realuria da amdenad realur sacxovrebels situaciaSi miRebuli Sedegebis ganzogadebac ufro advilia. savele pirobebis es upiratesobani “garegani validurobis” saxeliTaa cnobili, rac asaxavs im faqts, rom Sedgebi ufro sandoa situaciebSi, romlebic viTardeba garkveuli sakvlevi situaciis sazRvrebs gareT (Campbell, Stanley 1963). Ggaregani validuroba maRalia maSin, roca kvlevis Sedegebi SeiZleba ganzogaddes sxva pirobebis da mosaxlebis sxva jgufebisTvis. ganvixiloT gansxvaveba or kvlevas Soris, romlbic aRwerilia am TavSi,- hartmanis laboratoriul eqsperimentsa, rac eZRvneboda Zaladobis satelevizio Cvenebas da feSbaxis da singeris savele eqsperiments, (rac swavlobda igive sakiTxs) Soris.

Hhartmanis mier Catarebul lab. kvlevaSi damoukidebeli-cvladi Zaladoba ekranze-xelovnurad iyo Seqmnili. Mmkvlevarma cdispirTaTvis specialurad moamzada mokle filmi. feSbaxisa da singeris savele kvlevaSi damoukidebel cvlads warmoadgenda Zaladoba, rac realurad demonstrirdeboda televiziis mier mTel qveyanaSi. Hhartmanis kvlevaSi damokidebuli cvladi-agresiuli qceva-xelovnuri iyo: is ganisazRvreboda eleqtruli ganmuxtvis sididiT, rac gamoynebuli iyo situaciaSi – maswavlebeli-moswavle da aseve specialurad iyo Seqmnili kvlevis Casatareblad. feSbaxis da singeris savele kvlevaSi damokidebuli cvladi iyo bunebrivi da eyrdnoboda damkvirvebelTa Sefasebas, rac asaxavda biWebis mier gamovlenil fizikur da verbalur agresiis xarisxs erTmaneTsa da maswavlebelTan mTi Cveuli urTierTobisas. davuSvaT, Tqven gadawyviteT am gamokvlevebis safuZvelze gaakeToT ganmazogadebeli daskvnebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra gavlenas axdens telemayurebelTaTvis yvelaze popularul dros naCvenebi satelevizio programebi agresiaze, rasac avlenen mozardi asakis biWbi yoveldRiur cxovrbaSi. savele kvleva sword Zaladobis aseT demonstraciasTan yoveldRiur agresiul qcevasa da realur cxovrebaSI mimdinare CvenTvis saintereso qcevebs ikvlevs. Kkvlevis es saxe ufro Sesaferisia ganzogadebisTvis, maS, savele kvlevas aqvs ufro meti “garegani validuroba”. savele pirobebSi muSaobis kidev erTi upiratsobaa is, rom zogjer mkvlevarebs aqvT saSualeba, imuSaon gansakuTrebulad Zlier cvladebTan, romlebic ar SeiZleba Seswavlili iyos laboratoriaSi. Mmkvlevarebs SeuZliaT Seiswavlon adamianebi gansakuTrebul situaciebSi, mag., rodesac maT eliT operacia Ria gulze saavadmyofoSi, an Sejgufdebian saartilerio dartymis dros. zogjer gamomgonebeli mkvlevarbi sargebloben “bunbrivi qsperimentis” upiratsobiT – im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac damoukidebeli cvladi ufro metad icvleba bunebrivi faqtorebis gavleniT da ara eqsperimentatoris moqmedebis Sedegad - mag: mkvlevarebs ar SeuZliaT SerCeviTad daavalon saxlis mflobelebs ganicadon damangreveli stiqiis zemoqmedeba mxolod imisTvis, rom naxon imoqmedebs Tu ara es maT TviTSefasebaze – piradad gaakontrolon sakuTari sicocxle. Mmagram 1980 wels parkerma, briuerma da spenserma miiRes SesaZlebloba moesinjaT es meTodi, rodesac Seiswavles dasaxlebul punqti, romlis mcxovrebnic dazaraldnen sazareli xanZrisgan. iseTma SemTxveviTma faqtorebma, rogoricaa qaris mimarTulebis swrafi cvla, ganapirobes, Tu romeli saxli ganadgurda da romli gadarCa, amrigad Seqmnes ubedurebis an misi aRdgenis SemTxveviT ganawilebis mosalodneli eqvivalenti.

Tab 1.2 lab. Dda savele kvlevebis Sedareba

laboratoriuli

savle

cvladis kontroli

maRali

Ddabali

SemTxveviTi ganawileba

TiTqmis yovelTvis

iSviaTad

Catarebis moxerxebuloba

Cveulebriv, maRali

Cveulebriv, maRali

realizmi

Ddabali

maRali

Damoukidebeli cvladebis zegavlena

Aaqvs tendencia klebisken

Aaqvs tendencia matebisken

saeWvooba da damaxinjebebi

Aaqvs tendencia zrdisken

Aaqvs tendencia klebisken

Ggaregani validuroba

Ddabali

maRali

imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom savele kvlevebi dakavSirebulia yoveldRiur cxovrebasTan, sakvlev pirTa eWvianoba cdis msvlelobisas minimumamde dadis. adamianTa reaqciebi ufro spontanuria da damaxinjebis sxvadasxva gavlenas naklebad ganicdis. rodesac adamianebi igeben, rom eqsperimentSi monawileoben yovelTvis aris SesaZlebloba, rom maT arabunebrivad daiWiron Tavi. magaliTad, SeiZleba gauCndeT survili, asiamovnon eqsperimentators, an sakuTari Tavi warmoaCInon ise, rogoradac maTTvis iqneba socialurad misaRebi an SeuZliaT ar endon saeqsperimento manipulaciebs. Aam efeqtTagan nebismiers SeuZlia migviyvanon Sedegebis damaxinjebamde, an gaabundovnon nebismier faqtobrivad arsebul mizez-Sedgobriv kavSiri. 1,2 cxrilSi warmodgenilia savele da laboratiriuli gamokvlevebis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis SedarebiTI analizi.

Mmonacemebis Sekrebis meTodebi

Semdgi nabijia gadawyvetileba monacemebis meTodikis SerCevis Sesaxeb. ZiriTadad arsebobs sami variantidan SerCevis SesaZlebloba. Mmkvlevarebs SeuZliaT: 1. Txovon gamokvlevis monawileebs sakuTari qcvis Taviseburebebze, azrebsa da grZnobebze saubari; 2. uSualod daakvirdnen monawileebs; 3. wavidnen arqivSi da gamoiyenon is monacemebi, romlebic Segrovebuli iyo sxva miznebisTvis, SesaZloa TviTangariSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli meTodikaa monacemebis Segrovebisa socialur fsiqologiaSi. Aadamianebs SeiZleba gamovkiTxoT, vis UuWeren mxars or kandidats Soris arCevnebis dros, bavSvebs SeiZleba vTxovoT gviambon, Tu rogor aRiqvamen Tanaklaselebis agresiulobas, an Tu rogoria maTi qceviTi reaqciebi satelevizio programebis yurebisas. Aanketebis an gamokiTxvis gamoyenebis didi upiratesobaa is, rom isini saSualebas aZlven mkvlvars Seafasos iseTi subieqturi mdgomareobebi, rogoricaa aRqma an emocia. Ddaskvnebi msgavsi sakiTxebis irgvliv SiZleba gamovitanoT mxolod iribad, dakvirvebaze dafuZnebul kvlevebis meSveobiT. magaliTad mkvlevars gauWirdeba gansazRvros, ramdenad eulad grZnobs Tavs adamiani, Tu am adamianis TviTangariSi ar miuRIa. TviTangariSis ZiriTadi nakli imaSia, rom mkvlevari unda endos adamianebs, romlebic aRweren Tavis grZnobebs. xSirad adamianebi Tanxmdebian gascen swori da sruli pasuxebi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, TuU maTi informaciis saidumlo kargadaa daculi. Mmagram mkvlevarebma isic ician, rom zogjer adamianebi malaven socialurad miuRebel mocemulobebs (mag: rasobrivi Sexedulebebi) da yovelTvis srulad ver aRiqvamen Tavis grZnobebs.

farTod gavrcelbulia sakvlevi meTodika – pirdapiri dakvirveba magaliTad daxmarebis aRmoCenisken mimarTuli qcevebis SeswavlisTvis mkvlevarebi qmnidnen mcire eqsperimentul situaciebs sazogadoebriv adgilebSi imisTvis, rom daenaxaT adamianTa ra raodenobaa mzad gasaWirSi Cavardnili ucnobi adamianisTvis daxmarebis gasawevad. Saqorwino urTierTobebis SeswavliT dakavebuli mkvlevarebi iReben nebarTvas saxlebSi mikrofonebis dasayeneblad da Canawerebis misaRebad, rac maT aZlevT saSualebas, Seiswavlon konfliqtebis, Cxubebis, Seqebis da urTierTobebis sxva saxeebis aRmocenebis sixSire.

saarqivo kvlevis warmoebisas mkvlevari iyenebs monacemebs, romlebic adre iyo Sekrebili raRac sxva miznisvis. magaliTad 1940 wels mkvlevarebi cdilobdnen gaerkviaT, iyo Tu ara dakavSirebuli Savkanian amerikelebze Zaladoba TeTrkanianTa mier ekonomikur siZneleebze aRmocenebul frustraciasTan. maT gamoiyenes istoriuli Canawerebi samxreT amerikaSi bambis fasebsa da SavkanianTa linCis wesiT dasjis monacemebs Soris urTirTobis dasadgenad (hovlendi, searsi 1940). M maT gaarkvies, rom linCis wesiT dasjis yvelaze didi raodenoba aRiniSna, rodesac bambaze fasebi yvelaze dabali iyo. SesaZloa, yvelaze metad ganmazogadebeli saarqivo monacemi miRebul iqnas aSS mosaxleobis aRweris Sedegebidan, romelic tardeba yovel aT weliwadS, bolo ori saukunea. Mmagram amis garda, arsebobs monacmTa sxva bankebi, romlebic Seicaven sxvadasxva gamokITxvis Sdegebsac.

saarqivo monacemebis gamoyenebas bevri upiratesoba aqvs. Yyvelaze aSkaraa – maTi mcire fasi. aSS-Si Catarebuli mosaxlobis aRwera jdeba milionobiT dolari, magram Semdgom es monacemebi SeiZleba moxmarebul iqnas sruliad ufasod. saarqivo monacemebi aseve aZleven mkvlevarebs saSualebas Seamowmon hipoTezebi drois msvlelobaSi mocmulobebis an qcevis cvlilebebze Dda ar SemoizRudon mxolod erTi istoriuli momentiT.

Cven SeiZleba davinteresdeT, Tu ramdenma adamianma ganacxada, rom prezidentis postze xmas miscmda qals. Aam sakiTxis irgvliv arsebulma saarqivo monacemebma, Segrovebulma mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi, SeiZlba mogvces farTe istoriuli konteqsti Sedegis miRebisaTvis. Mmeore mxriv, saarqivo monacemebi Tavdapirvelad grovdeba raRac sxva sakvlevi Temis irgvliv, romelic sruliad gansxvavdeba axali kvlevebisagan. Aamis gamo kiTxvebi yovlTvis ar emTxveva adre dasmul kiTxvebs, an isini SeiZleba arasworad iqnan formirebuli axali miznebisaTvis, an cdispirTa jgufi sruliad gansxvavdebodes imisgan, rac unda axal mkvlevasrs. Aamis miuxedavad, xSirad, saarqivo monacemebi socialur-fsiqologiur kvlevebSi sasargeblo wyaroa.

Ddamaxinjebebi kvlevis dros

Yyvela mkvlevars awuxebs SesaZlo damaxinjebebi kvlevis dros da socialuri fsiqologebic ar arian gamonaklisi. soc. Ffsiq-Si yvlaze did Relvas iwvevs damaxinjebebis 2 tipi: zemoqmedeba, gamowveuli mkvlevaris qceviT, da damaxinjeba dakavSirebuli cdis piris grZnobebTan, rasac is ganicdis kvlevasTan dakavSirebiT.

Eeqsperimentatoris gavleniT gamowveuli damaxinjebebi

Kkvlevis monawileni mniSvnelovani xarisxiT ganicdian mkvlevaris zegavlenas. Tu mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom cdispirebs eqnebaT raRac garkveuli reaqcia, aris aseTi tendencia, rom isini swored as moiqcevian. Ees problema cnobilia saxeliT “eqsperimentatoris mikerZoebuloba.” Mmag, ganvixiloT kvleva – masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi Zaladobis demonstraciis gavlena. Eeqsprimentis msvlelobisas cdis monawileni filmis naxvis Semdeg (ZaladobiT an mis gareSe) gansazRvraven eleqtruli Sokis sidides sxva adamianisTvis. saukeTeso survilebiT Sepyrobilma, magram SeiZleba zdmetad mondomebulma eqsperimentatorma, romelic elis, rom cdispirebi Zaladobis Semcveli filmebis naxvis Semdeg iqnebian ufro agrsiulebi, SesaZloa Rilakis CarTvis momentSi SeumCneveli RimiliT, Tavis daqneviT, an mxedvelobiTi kontaqtiT xeli Seuwyos, rom cdis pirma gazardos eleqtruli muxtis Zala, an piriqiT. Aarsebobs eqsperimentatoris mikerZoebulobis problemis 2 gadawyveta. erTi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom mocmuli kvlevis Camtarebel adamianebs, (mkvlevaris TanaSemweebs) ar movuTxroT hipoTezis Sesaxeb, an im eqsperimentuli pirobebis Sesaxeb, romelSic unda ganTavsdes mocemuli cdis piri. Mmag, erTma TanaSemwm mxolod filmis demonstracia moaxdinos, xolo meorem – uSualod davaleba Seasrulebinos cdispirebs, ise rom man ar icodes romeli filmi naxes cdispirebma. rogorc amboben, meore mkvlevari unda iyos “brma” pirveli davalebis mimarT.

Mmeore gadawyvetaa yvela SesaZlo xerxiT situaciis standartizirba. Tu yvelaferi standartizebulia da ar arsebobs gansxvaveba cdis pirobebs Soris, Tu ar CavTvliT winaswar dagegmils, damaxinjeba ar unda aRmocendes.

sxva Tu araferi, cdispirebi SeiZlba movidnen qsperimentSi monawileobis misaRebad da ipovon karze gamokruli instruqcia, romelic maT avalebs Sevidnen oTaxSi da dasxdnen kompiuterebTan. sxva momdevno instruqciebic SesaZloa aseve kompiuteris saSualebiT mieceT da cdispirebmac aseve kompiuteriTve upasuxon ekranze gamoCenil kiTxvebs. cdispirebma sruliad unda daasrulon eqsperimenti manam, sanam Sexvdebian eqsperimentators. aseT SemTxvevaSi situaciis faqtori iqneba absoluturad standartizebuli da eqsperimentatoris mikrZoebuloba gamoiricxeba.

sinamdvileSi damaxinjebis problemis gadasawyvetad orive zemoT aRwerili meTodis kombinacia gamoiyeneba. Mmkvlevari imdenad brma rCeba cdis pirisTvis Seqmnili eqsperimentuli pirobebis mimarT, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia. Aamave principis gamoyenebiT xdeba instruqciebis standartizireba, dawerili masalebis, audio- da videokasetebis da kompiuterebis sSualebiT.

Ddamaxinjebebi, dakavSirebuli cdispirTan

Ddamaxinjebis sxva wyaros warmoadgens cdispiris motivebi da miznebi, dakavSirebuli imasTan, rom is aris kvlevis monawile. moTxovnadi maxasiaTblebi- es aris maTi xasiaTebi, Setanili kvlevis pirobebSi, im faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, rom es kvlevaa da cdispirma icis, rom is am kvlevis nawilia. ZiriTadi idea isaa, rom adamianis mier im ubralo faqtis codnam, rom is aris dakvirvebis obiqti, SsaZloa Secvalos misi qceva. cdispirma SesaZloa scados eqsperimentis namdvili miznis gamocnoba da Secvalos Tavisi reaqciebi imis mixedviT, Tu ras fiqrobs am kvlevaze. Man SeiZleba gauCndes survili misces mkvlevars socialurad misaRebi pasuxi – warmoaCinos Tavi Wkvianad, anda liberalad politikis sakiTxebSi, an pasuxismgblobis mqone pirad religiur an seqsualur planSi, imisda mixedviT, Tu rogor axdens is situaciis intrpretacias.Tu pasuxebi am saxiT maxinjdeba, mkvlevarebs aRar SeuZliaT swori daskvnebis gamotana.

48-54 (jiqia)

veberma da kutma safuZvlianad gaaanalizes is rolebi, romlebsac asruleben cdispirebi laboratoriuli kvlevis msvlelobisas. maT gamoyves ramdenime gansxvavebuli roli: “kargi cdispirebi”, romlebic cdiloben daexmaron mkvlevarebs, akeTeben ra yvelafers hipoTezis dadasturebisaTvis; “negativisti cdispirebi”, romlebic cdiloben eqsperimentis Cagdebas; ”erTguli cdispirebi”, romlebic keTilsindisierad misdeven instruqcias da gaurbian iseT qmedebebs, romlebic dafuZvnebulia kvlevis arsis Sesaxeb eWvebze; ‘frTxili cdispirebi’, romlebic romlebsac yvelaze metad sakuTari qceva aRelvebT. marTalia pasuxebis damaxinjebas mTlianad ver aRmovfxvriT, magram SegviZlia maTi minimumamde dayvana sxvadasxva xerxiT. Kkvlevis mizania Seqmnas iseTi situacia, romelSic c.p-ebi upasuxeben spontanurad da ar ecdebian imis dadgenas, Tu ras “moiTxovs” mocemuli situacia. SeZlebisdagvarad, mecnierebi akeTeben iseT raRaceebs, rom c.p-ebi verc ki xvdebian rom maT Seiswavlian. magaliTad, fexiT mosiaruleebma, romlebic aRmoCndebian situaciaSi, sadac quCaSi kaci waiqceva, SeiZleba verc verasdros gaigon, rom isini kvlevaSi monawileoben, sadac waqceuli kaci Tavad mkvlevaria, romelic ikvlevs ucnobisTvis daxmarebis gawevis reaqciebs kritikul situaciebSi. Mmeore midgoma isaa, rom mkvlevari iZleva sruli anonimurobis garantias – aravin, maT Soris mkvlevarmac ar icis romeli pasuxi romel cdispirs ekuTvnis.

yvelaze gavrcelebuli xerxia c.p-sTvis imis damalva, Tu ra udevs safuZvlad kvlevas. magaliTad Tu gvinda vikvlioT sqesobrivi gansxvavebebi ucnobebTan komunikaciis procesSi, SegviZlia c.p-ebs vuTxraT, rom kvleva exeba, vTqvaT, gemovnebis sakiTxs da mosacdel oTaxSi, sadac isini iqnebian Tavmoyrilni eqsperimentis dawyebis win, Cven ubralod davakvirdebiT maT qcevas. SesaZloa am oTaxSi imyofebodes Cveni damxmare piri, romelic ise iqceva, TiTqos isic cdis monawilea. aseT SemTxvevaSi, c.p-ebs SeiZleba warmodgenac ar hqondeT, rom maTi qceva dakvirvebis sagania. Yyvela es faqtori amcirebs imis SesaZleblobas, rom pasuxebi damaxinjdeba an Seicvleba socialuri sasurvelobis faqtoris gavleniT.

<> arcerTi kvleva, ra kargadac ar unda iyos is organizebuli, ar SeiZleba iyos srulyofili. Yyvela meTods aqvs Tavisi farglebi, xolo mkvlevarebs ar SeuZliaT yvela adamianis Seswavla; amitom yovelTvis arsebobs garkveuli zRvari mecnieTa SesaZleblobisa ganazogadon miRebuli Sedegebi. iqidan gamomdinare, rom nebismieri calke aRebuli kvleva SeiZleba Seicavdes garkveul Secdomas, kargi kvlevis amosacnob Strixs warmoadgens misi gameorebis SesaZlebloba. Yyvelaze martivad es ase SegviZlia warmovidginoT – igive kvlevis sxva dros Catarebisas da igive meTodebis gamoyenebiT unda miviRoT igive Sedegebi. Ees aris ZiriTadi moTxovna am principisa. ueWvelia, rom socialur kvlevaSi iSviaTadaa imis SesaZlebloba, rom zustad aRvadginoT kvlevis yvela aspeqti, radganac icvleba, rogorc cdispirTa Semadgenloba, ise cocialuri da politikuri klimati qveyanaSi da a.S. amitom, roca gameorebul kvlevaSi viRebT pirvelis analogiur Sedegs, kvlevebis sisworeSi SegviZlia darwmunebuli viyoT.

K kvleva msxvili planiT

M metaanalizi socialur fsiqologiaSi

garkveuli Temisadmi miZRvnili kvlevebis raodenobis zrdasTan dakavSirebiT, mecnierebi ejaxebian axal problemas: rogor SevuxamoT kvlevis Sedegebi erTmaneTs, raTa miviRoT saerTo daskvna. ganvixiloT kvleva, romelic exeba sqesobriv gansxvavebebs daxmarebis gawevis procesSi. iglim da kroulma daiTvales 172 kvleva, romelic exeba am Temas. rogor unda gaumklavdnen mkvlevarebi am empiriuli kvlevebis mudmivad mzard raodenobas?

bolo wlebSi SemuSavda axali statistikuri meTodi – metaanalizi, romelic daexmareba mkvlevarebs eqsperimentuli monacemebis sinTezirebasa da mimoxilvaSi sistematizaciis safuZvelze. Ppirveli nabijia is, rom mkvlevarma unda moiZios rac SeiZleba meti kvleva konkretul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. Semdeg, metaanaliziT gamoyenebuli statistikuri meTodebis daxmarebiT, man unda gamoyos informacia misTvis xelmisawvdomi kvlevenidan. mizans warmoadgens konkretuli Sedegis sididis Sefasebis miReba. magaliTad, sqesobri gansxvavebis sidide. Mmkvlevars SeuZlia daadginos, rom sqesobrivi gansxvavebis saSualo maCvenebeli standartuli gadaxris 1/10-ze naklebia – esaa sakmaod mcire Sedegi, romelsac ar aqvs praqtikuli mniSvneloba.

metaanalizis Catarebisas, statistikuri monacemebi, aseve, gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva kvlevebis homogenurobis (msgavsebis) dadgenisTvis. roca sxvadasxva kvlevebSi miRebuliSedegebi xasiaTdebian maRali homogenurobiT, maSin kvlevis sisworeSi darwmunebuloba izrdeba. xolo roca maT Soris gansvlaa, metaanalizi gviCvenebs imis aucileblobas, rom moviZioT sxva faqtorebi, romlebsac eqnebaT garkveuli mniSvneloba. magaliTad Tu 40 kvlevaSi naCvenebia, rom mamakacebi ukeT asruleben raime amocanas da 40 kvleva aCvenebs rom amas qalebi asruleben ukeT, unda vivaraudoT, rom gansxavavebas iwvevs raRac, sqesisgan gansxvavebuli faqtori; magaliTad – SeiZleba kacebi ukeT asruleben davalebas jgufSi, an roca eqsperimentatoric kacia da a.S. am SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia vecadoT axali faqtorebis da mizezebis dadgenas. Am wignis kiTxvisas metaanalizs, socialuri qcevis mraval aspeqtTan dakavSirebiT

zusti gameorebis ganxorcielbisas didi mniSvneloba aqvs konceptualur gameorebebs. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, erTi da igive konceptualuri kavSiris SeswavlisTvis gamoiyeneba gansxvavebuli kvleviTi meTodebi. magaliTad: Cven vxedavT, rom kvlevebi, romlebic exebian televiziiT Zaladobis Cvenebis gavlenas agresiul qcevaze, tardeboda rogorc laboratoriul, ise velis pirobebSi, kvlevis rogorc korelaciuri, ise eqsperimentuli meTodis gamoyenebiT, agresiuli qcevis gansxvavebuli SefasebebiT da Zaladobis Semcveli mravali filmis gamoyenebiT. imis Sedegad, rom gansxvavebulima meTodebma mogvces msgavsi Sedegebi, mkvlevarebi metad rwmundebian imaSi, rom sworad esmiT is movlena, rasac isini Seiswavlian. ganyofilebaSikvleva msxvili planiT”, romelic CarTulia am TavSi, mocemulia metaanalizis aRwera. Ees aris axali, popularuli meTodi kvlevis didi raodenobiT Sedegebis interpretaciisaTvis.

ZiriTadi azri imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mkvlevarebma unda gamoiCinon sifrTxile raime TemasTan dakavSirebuli monacemebis seriozulad aRmisas. garda amisa, maT unda dasvan kiTxva – iyo Tu ara romelime Sedegi dadasturebuli sxva kvlevaSic? Aaseve, isini unda dafiqrdnen imazu, Tu ra praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs am kvlevebs. magaliTad – sqesobtivi gansxvaveba marTla iseTi seriozulia, rom man SeiZleba gansazRvros adamianTa qcevis gansxvaveba realur cxovrebaSi? Cven yoveldRe gvesmis mediidan moxsenebebi iseT Temebze, rogoricaa qolesterinis mavne gavlena janmrTelobaze, seqsi mozardebSi, usafrTxoebis qamris gamoyeneba da sxva. gamoiyeneT Tqveni codna kvlevis meTodebisa da gameorebadobis Sesaxeb, raTa frTxilad da gonivrulad miiRoT da aRiqvaT SemoTavazebuli kvleviTi angariSebi.

K kvlevis eTika

1950-60-ian wlebSi bevrma adamianma gamoTqva SeSfoTeba kvlevis eTikis Sesaxeb. Ggarkveulwilad, es SeSfoTeba emyareboda informaciis gaCenas, romlis mixedviTac nacistur germaniaSi, sakoncentracio banakebSi mecnierebi awarmoebdnen tyveebze saxifaTo da xSir SemTxvevaSi, sasikvdilo eqsperimentebs, maTi survilis winaaRmdeg. Kkvlevis eTikaze yuradRebis gamaxvileba, aseve, gamoiwvia informaciam aSS-Si Catarebulma saeWvo samedicino eqsperimentma, romelsac “tuskejis saqme” ewoda. 1932 wels alabamas Statis qalaq tuskejiSi daiwyo 40 wliani kvleva, romelSic CarTuli iyo dabali soc. fenis 399 afro-amerikeli, romlebic daaavdes sifilisiT (aTarSangiT), romelsac SeuZlia gamoiwvios tvinis dazianeba da sikvdili. Kkvlevis mizani iyo ramdenime wlis manZilze dakvirvebodnen sifilisis gavlenas adamianebze, romlebic mkurnalobas ar eqvemdebarebian. Mmamakacebs eubnebodnen, rom maT mkurnaloben, Tumca realurad, maT ar aZlevdnen wamlebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom penicilini ukve 40-ian wlebSi xelmisawvdomi gaxda., romelic efeqturad mkurnalobs mocemul daavadebas. 1972 wlamde grZeldeboda es kvleva, xolo cocxlad darCenil cdispirebs isev ar utardebodaT aranairi mkurnaloba.

Socialuri fsiqologiis sferoSi kvlevis eTikis sakiTxi xSirad exeba tyuilis gamoyenebas kvlevaSi. magaliTad, eTikuria Tu ara mkvlevarebis mxridan daavalos c.p-s eleqrtoSokis gamoyeneba meore adamianis winaaRmdeg, roca eleqtromiwyobiloba araa namdvili, xolo “msxverpli” – cru cdispiria? SeiZleba rom eqsperimentma miiyvanos c.p. danaSaulis grZnobis gaCenamde, radganac man sxva adamians tkivili miayena (isini xom darwmunebulni arian, rom el.Soki namdvilia)? Tuki eqsperimentis dasrulebisas, mkvlevari etyvis c.p-s, rom el.Soki araa mandvili, xo mar igrZnobs c.p Tavs gasulelebulad, radgan is moayues?

Kvleva, romelic iyenebs tyuils, svams mTel rig eTikur sakiTxebs. ra SemTxvevaSi imsaxurebs mkvlevari gamarTlebas, romelic c.p-ebs awvdis cru an arasrulyofil informacias? ra SemTxvevaSia (Tu es SesaZlebelia saerTod) kanonieri is moqmedebebi, romlebic zians ayeneben cdispirebs? ssamarTliania Tu ara cdispirTa safrTxis qveS dayeneba, Tu kvlevas aqvs didi mecnieruli mniSvneloba? Aam kiTxvebma iqamde migviyvanes, rom mravalma profesiulma asociaciam daiwyo mcdeloba daedginaT qcevis eTikis principebi. 1972 wels amerikis fsiqologTa asociaciam (apa) pirvelma SeimuSava fsiqologiuri kvlevis eTikis ZiriTadi principebi. Semdeg, axali kiTxvebis gaCenasTan erTad, SemogvTavaza Sesworebuli varianti (1992 wels). Aamis paralelurad, aSS-s mTavrobam daayena federaluri wyaroebiT dafinansebuli yvela kvlevis Semowmebis procedura. aSS-s mTavrobis moTxovna iyo – yvela universitetSi Tu kvleviT institutSi Camoyalibebuliyo komiteti, romlis SemadgenlobaSic unda yofiliyvnen mkvlevarebi, romlebsac unda ganexilaT yvela SesaZlo kvleva, romelSic adamianebi miiRebdnen monawileobas. aseTi makontrolebeli organo pasuxismgebelia imaze, rom kvlevebi Catardes federaluri mTavrobis mier formirebuli garkveuli principebis Sesabamisad. 3 yvelaze ZiriTadi eTikuri principi soc fsiqologiur kvlevaSi aris – informirebuli Tanxmoba, amocanis Semdgomi informireba da minimaluri riski.

<> cdispirma unda mogvces nebayoflobiTi Tanxmoba kvlevaSi monawileobaze, yovelgvari daZalebis gareSe. sanam mkvlevari sTxovs c.p-s monawileoba miiRos kvlevaSi, man jer unda miawodos mas maqsimaluri informacia mocemuli kvlevis Sesaxeb. c.p-ma unda icodes kvlevis meTodis Sesaxeb, nebismieri riskis da / an sargeblis Sesaxeb. aseve, imis Sesaxeb, rom mas SeuZlia nebismier dros datovos eqsperimenti yovelgvari sasjelis SiSis gareSe. Aam saerTo wesidan nebismieri gamonaklisi unda daiSvas mxolod Semmowmebeli organos mier dagegmili kvlevis safuZvliani Sewavlis Semdeg.

Aam wesis moTxovnebi Zalian gonivrulia, magram isini zogjer problemebs uqmnian soc fsiqologebs. rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, zogjer ukeTesia c.p-ebs ar vuTxraT kvlevis kvlevis realuri miznis Sesaxeb, raTa Tavidan aviciloTYsaWiro pasuxebis damaxinjeba. warmoidgineT, rom kvleva exeba imas, Tu ramdenad arian mzad adamianebi kritikul momentSi daexmaron sxva adamians. Tu maT winaswar vetyviT, rom kvleva amas exeba, SeuZlebeli iqneba swori Sedegebis miReba.

zogi adamiani Tvlis, rom kvlevaSi nebismieri saxis tyuili miuRebelia, radgan is amcirebs cpispirs. fsiqologTa Soris ki gavrcelebulia mosazreba, rom tyuilis gamoyeneba araa saWiro iq, sadac SegviZlia Tavidan aviciloT is, xolo im SemTvevaSi, roca kvlevis Sedegebs gacilebiT meti mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre tyuiliT miyenebul zians, maSin is dasaSvebia.

<> roca kvleva mTavrdeba, mis monawiles aucileblad unda mieces angariSi, - esaa met-naklebad detaluri axsna imisa, YTu ra iyo kvlevis mizani da ra meTodi iqna gamoyenebuli. m monawiles unda SeeZlos gaCenili kiTxvebis dasma da Tavisi grZnobebis gamoxatva. Gganxilvisas megobrulma saubarma mkvlevarsa da monawiles Seoris SeiZleba aRmofxvras Sinagani wonasworobis neismieri darRveva, romelic kvlevam gamoiwvia. aseve, monawiles SeuZlia miRebuli sasargeblo informaciiT gaiRrmavos gamocdileba. roca kvleva exeba gansakuTrebiT mwvave Temas, , monawiles unda miewodos meTodi, romliTac is miiRebs informacias am TemasTan dakavSirebiT – miewodos literatura an gaewios specialistis konsultacia.

<> mesame ZiriTadi eTikuri principi exeba kvlevis msvlelobisas minimalur risks, anu kvlevaSi riski ar unda aRematebodes im risks, rasac adamiani awydeba realur cxovrebaSi.

riskis yvelaze mniSvnelovani wyaroa adamianis pirad cxovrebaSi Careva. aucilebelia pativi vceT adamianis piradi cxovrebis uflebas. iseTi Temebis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa seqsi, narkotikebisa Tu alkoholis miReba, religiuri aRmsarebloba da a.S. pasuxebi unda iyos mkacrad gasaidumloebuli. Mmeores mxriv, sazogadoebrivi qceva Tu movlena ar saWiroebs aseT dacvas. Nebismier adamians SeuZlia gaigos iseTi monacemebi, rogoricaa Sobadobis, qorwinebis Tu sikvdilianobis ricxvi. kvlevisas pirad cxovrebaSi Carevis riski, droTa ganmavlobaSi, SeiZleba, Seicvalos, Tavad sazogadoebis cvlilebasTan erTad. magaliTad, dRes adamianebi ufro Tamamad saubroben TavianT seqsualur urTierTobebze, vidre es iyo erTi Taobis win. dRes ufro metad adamianebs aRelvebT, magaliTad, Sidsis Sesaxeb informaciis gasaidumloeba, radgan aman SeiZleba uaryofiTad imoqmedos janmrTelobis dazRvevaze, samsaxursa da maT adgilze sazogadoebaSi. pasuximgeblobiani mkvlevarebi inaxaven am informacias daculad, aZleven ra monawileebs anonimurobis uflebas.

Riskis kidev erTi kategoria dakavSirebulia stresis gansxvavebul saxeebTan. kvlevisas, monawilem SeiZleba ganicados mowyena, SiSi an gaRizianeba. Zogi kvleva safrTxes uqmnis monawilis TviTSefasebas, magaliTad kauzaluri atribuciis kvlevebi ikvleven warmatebisa da marcxis mizezebi miweras Sinagan Tu garegan faqtorebze, sadac marcxis gavlena arc ise saxumaro ramea. an roca adamiani SeyavT gaurkvevel situaciaSi, esec, xSirad, Zalian gamaRizianebelia. mkvlevarebma – smitma da riCardsonma Caatares kvleva universitetis studentebze, romelTagan 20%-ma aRniSna, rom maT miiRes uaryofiTi emociebi, rom maT atyueben da amcireben. xolo im kvlevebSi,sadac gamoiyens tyuili, aseTi emocia Seeqmna studentebis 40%-s.

ra donis unda iyos riski, romlis qveSac vayebT monawiles? Ppirveli principi, aqac unda iyos informirebuli Tanxmoba – mkvlevarma unda misces monawiles informacia riskis Sesaxeb da man Tavad unda gadawyvitos miiRebs Tu ara monawileobas kvlevaSi.

yovelTvis araa SesaZlebeli monawiles miewodos mTeli informacia kvlevis mizanTan dakavSirebiT. am SemTxvevaSi, specialistebi da makontrolebeli organo erToblivad iReban gadawyvetilebas , Tu ra odenobis riskia dasaSvebi. rogorc aRvniSneT, kvlevaSi riski ar unda aRematebodes yoveldRiur cxovrebiseul risks. magaliTad geSiniaT nemsis gakeTebis, magram es xom Cveulebrivi movlenaa; ai sxva saqmea 10 saaTiani sruli izolacia, adamianTa umravlesobisTvis es araa Cveulebrivi ram. Aamitom mkvlevarebma frTxilad unda dagegmon kvleva aseT SemTxvevebSi, roca riski gacilebiT maRalia, vidre Cveulebrivi acrisas.

da bolos, kidev erTi kriteriumi, romliTac xelmZRvaneloben mkvlevarebi da makontrolebeli organoebi, riskis dadgenisas, aris monawilis fizikuri da sulieri ucvleloba. Aanu monawiles, kvlevis Semdeg, ar unda darCes raime gverdiTi efeqti. miRebuli gamocdilebiT monawiles ar unda Seecvalos fizikuri da sulieri mdgomareoba, codna Tu ganwyobebi. Tu am yvelafers gaviTvaliswinebT, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom risks Tavidan maqsimalurad avicilebT.

Kargad da sworad organizebuli soc kvlevas moaqvs adamianur gamocdilebaSi axali aRmoCenebis sixaruli. Mmecnieruli meTodebis gonivrul gamoyenebas SeuZlia mogvces Seufasebeli wvlili soc cxovrebis da soc problemebis Cveneuli gagebisTvis, magram amasTan erTad, fsiq kvlevas ekisreba pasuxismgebloba monawileebze, rac dakavSirebulia eTikis normebTan; aseve, mkvlevarebi madlierebi unda iyvenen monawileebisa, radgan isini gvaZleven Zvirfas monacemebs, raTa publikas warvudginoT mniSvnelovani Sedegebi.

konec sviazi J

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